Exosome Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications
Simple, Accurate, Early Detection
Emerging scientific evidence indicates that the number, composition and contents of exosomes circulating throughout the body changes with aging and disease, which presents an opportunity for development of new diagnostic modalities.
Clinical Application of MSC Exosomes in Clinical Medicine
MSC Exosomes present a unique opportunity for use as therapeutic instruments, allowing the delivery of beneficial proteins, miRNA and other therapeutic agents to aging or diseased cells to improve their function.
MSC Exosome Properties
The intrinsic, biological properties of perinatal MSC exosomes make them excellent candidates for the treatment of injury and disease, and Kimera Labs is investigating potential clinical applications of MSC exosomes based on these properties.
Anti-InflammatoryBy down-regulating inflammatory proteins like IL-1β, TNF-α, MMPs and upregulating anti-inflammatory proteins like IL-4, IL-10 and TIMPs, MSC exosomes could reduce inflammation, which is a central mechanism of many autoimmune, inflammatory and degenerative conditions.
Anti-OxidantExosomal proteins such as peroxiredoxins could reduce the oxidation state of cells under oxidative stress, which is present in many disease states and plays a role in tissue degeneration associated with aging. Reducing the oxidative stress on cells could improve their function and survival.
Anti-ApoptoticBy exogenously supplying diseased or degenerative cells with proteins that support essential cellular functions, MSC exosomes could influence the cell fate decision and prevent apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic message contained within these exosomes may help to slow, stop or reverse tissue degeneration.
Anti-FibroticMSC exosomes optimize tissue remodeling in skin with improved type I/III collagen ratio and normal lattice organization of collagen fibers. Reducing or preventing scar formation, during wound healing, or fibrosis, after tissue injury, could improve the appearance and function of tissues after injury.
ImmunomodulatoryBy influencing the polarization of macrophages and T-cells to less inflammatory and more regulatory phenotypes, exosomes could modulate the activity of immune cells to reduce auto-immune disease, fibrosis and tissue degradation.
Pro-AngiogenicBy stimulating endothelial cell function, exosomes could improve angiogenesis (new blood vessel formation). Improving the blood supply to injured or diseased tissues could help to increase survival of cells and prevent tissue degeneration.
Pro-SyntheticEnhancement of extracellular matrix production by specific cells induced by exosomes could help to restore damaged tissues. MSC exosomes with specific micro RNA profiles could help to regenerate a normal collagen matrix in the skin or stimulate production of normal articular cartilage.
EpigeneticsInfluencing the activity of proteins like histone deacetylases allows exosomes to modify the functions of the target cells without altering the genome. By altering the methylation patterns of DNA, dormant gene expression could be re-activated.
Developing future therapeutics
Understanding the principal cellular and biochemical mechanisms of disease and the biological properties of MSC exosomes opens the door for the next generation of therapeutic biologics.
Perinatal MSC exosomes may be the foundation of cures for many autoimmune, inflammatory, degenerative and malignant conditions, as well as being an effective treatment for some traumatic injuries.
After further investigation and clinical trials, cardiovascular, neurologic, musculoskeletal and dermatologic conditions, just to name a few, may eventually benefit from treatment with MSC exosomes.