Exosome Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications
Simple, Accurate, Early Detection
Emerging scientific evidence indicates that the number, composition and contents of exosomes circulating throughout the body changes with aging and disease, presenting an opportunity for development of new diagnostic modalities.
Application of MSC Exosomes in Clinical Medicine
Ongoing research into MSC Exosomes presents a tremendous opportunity for development of biopharmaceuticals by providing a simple mechanism for delivery of therapeutic molecules.
MSC Exosome Properties
The intrinsic, biological properties of neonatal MSC exosomes demonstrated in laboratory studies indicate their potential as investigational biologic agents for the treatment of injury and disease. Kimera Labs® is investigating potential clinical applications of MSC exosomes based on these properties.
Anti-InflammatoryBy down-regulating inflammatory proteins like TNF-α, IL-1β and MMPs, and upregulating anti-inflammatory proteins like IL-4, IL-10 and TIMPs, MSC exosomes could reduce inflammation, which is a central mechanism of many autoimmune, inflammatory and degenerative conditions.
Anti-OxidantExosomal proteins such as peroxiredoxins could reduce the oxidation state of cells under oxidative stress, which is present in many disease states and plays a role in tissue degeneration associated with aging. Reducing the oxidative stress on cells could improve their function and survival.
Anti-ApoptoticBy supplying diseased or degenerative cells with proteins and RNA that support essential cellular functions, MSC exosomes could exogenously maintain cell viability and prevent apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic message contained within these exosomes may help to slow, stop or reverse tissue degeneration.
Anti-FibroticIn preclinical studies, MSC exosomes optimize tissue remodeling in damaged skin and other tissues with improved type I/III collagen ratio and normal organization of collagen fibers. Reducing fibrosis during wound healing or after tissue injury could improve scar formation and tissues.
ImmunomodulatoryBy polarizing immune cells, such as macrophages and T-cells, to less inflammatory and more regulatory phenotypes, MSC exosomes could modulate the activity of immune cells to improve autoimmune disease and mitigate conditions characterized by excessive immune response.
Pro-AngiogenicBy stimulating endothelial cell function, MSC exosomes could improve angiogenesis. Improving the blood supply to injured or diseased tissues could help to increase the survival of damaged cells and prevent tissue degeneration and impaired function.
Pro-SyntheticActivation of specific cells, such as fibroblasts, by MSC exosomes could enhance extracellular matrix production and help to restore damaged tissues. Specific exosome microRNA molecules could also help to regenerate normal collagen in the skin or stimulate production of normal articular cartilage.
EpigeneticsProteins like histone deacetylases contained within MSC exosomes may induce transcription of inactive DNA and influence the functions of target cells without altering the genome. By altering the methylation patterns of DNA, dormant gene expression could be re-activated.
Developing future therapeutics
Understanding the principal cellular and biochemical mechanisms of disease and injury and how MSC exosomes could influence cellular behavior opens the door for research and development of the next generation of diagnostic modalities and therapeutic biologics.
Further study will indicate if neonatal MSC exosomes may form the foundation of novel treatments and cures for many autoimmune, inflammatory, degenerative, traumatic and malignant conditions by optimizing the activity of cells and tissues involved in pathogenesis of disease and injury.
Investigation of the biological effects of MSC exosomes with laboratory studies and clinical trials should be performed to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of exosome-based therapy for cardiovascular, neurologic, musculoskeletal and dermatologic conditions and more.